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Thursday, April 17, 2008

Japanese Fertility Festival - Hounen Matsuri

Tagata Jinja is a Shinto shrine in Komaki just north of Nagoya, and as such is just one of many that can be found throughout Japan. It symbolizes the strong spatial and temporal linkage of the people to the community of Komaki, which until comparatively recently festivals in Japan. Amongst foreigners visiting Aichi Prefecture it is frequently referred to as the "penis shrine", or "Japanese penis festival", primarily due to the was a farming area. The Hounen festival at Tagata shrine is one of the most famous ancient Hounen Matsuri (a festival celebrating fertility and renewal), which is held here every March 15th.

Every year on March 15 a huge two and a half meter wooden phallus is carried the short distance between two shrines attracting visitors from all over Japan and international media attention. The festival is fun with a lot of sake drinking, however the background of the festival is rather more serious. A shrine is a place of worship. It houses divine spirits and preserves the memory and practice of many aspects of Japanese culture. This file is intended to introduce some of the history, mythology, rituals, and customs of Tagata Jinja.


during the end of the Yamato period (approx 3rd-5th century AD). These rulers were warriors who settled the area from Nara as the emerging feudal Japanese state defeated and displaced indigenous Ainu tribes and pushed its frontiers to the east. According to the official history of the shrine, the daughter of the feudal lord was called Tamahime, and was bethrothed to Takeinadane. The tradition holds that until recently it was surrounded by a forest called "Agata", a name believed to have derived from the name of one of the rulers of the local areaTagata Jinja is believed to be about 1500 years old, due to discoveries in 1935 of an ancient sword and extensive pottery fragments. These days the shrine is surrounded by suburbia, but Takeinadane was killed in a distant battle and that his wife and children (and powerful father in law) developed the area. Tagata Jinja stands on the site of Tamahime's residence, and she is the principal deity (called kami in Japanese) enshrined here.

Shinmeisha which contains a large number of natural and man-made objects, almost all of which are either shaped like a penis or have some phallic theme. It is important to understand that the worship is not of the phalli, but instead a worship of the earth, of the power that nature has through renewal and regeneration. It is this context that p worshipped in the main sanctuary of the building called the honden. This is the main shrine building. Behind and to the left of this structure, you can find another building called theEnshrined as Tamahime-no-mikoto, she isrovides the phallus with its significance.


With everything from penis shaped candy to suck on, phallus keychains, azuki filled dumplings in the shape of the male member, and small wooden objects to take home as souvenirs, it is easy to think that it is the phallus that is being worshipped. This is not the case. Each of the hundreds of objects in the shrine buildings are essentially offerings to the enshrined deity, and are venerated as such. In the past, the shrine often lended these phalluses to those in need, for example a couple wishing to conceive, an individual searching for a suitable spouse, or to cure childhood illnesses.

The objects were returned with interest, for after the desired result was obtained the borrowed phallus was returned to the shrine, along with a new object donated in gratitude. However what the veneration is about though is the worship of a feminine deity. The kami is female and embodies fertility and fecundity. Not far from Tagata shrine there is another place of worship called Ogata (Oogata) Jinja, where the objects are representative of female genitalia.

In an agricultural community, the sacred feminine was worshipped, and the rituals that have survived to this day at the Tagata shrine were celebrations of this, conducted in order to ensure bountiful agricultural harvests, regeneration and renewal as well as human birth. In this way the Hounen matsuri is similar to other fertility rituals around the world. Hounen means bountiful year. The festival is held March 15th because spring is the time of regeneration where seeds sprout and dormant trees and plants that seem to be dead come back to life.

For most of the year, Tagata Jinja is very quiet. Most of the visitors are young couples, sometimes coming to pray for successful conception, sometimes coming to give thanks for safe child birth. Tagata's fertility festival, as with most festivals in Japan, is treated in a lighthearted way with much sake and noisy behavior. Modern Japanese society is less dependent on the vagaries of seasons and harvests and so the importance of agricultural traditions has faded, however it is obvious that people do take it seriously, solemnly approaching the permanent shrines and praying in silence. You see the occasional busload of tourists, often from Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, but for the most part Tagata is silent. In the lead up to March 15th, there is constant preparation, however most of it is behind the scenes.

The matsuri, known as the Hounen-sai, has always had the objective of ensuring a bountiful harvest. It is mostly a procession symbolizing the visit of the male Takeinadane to the powerful and waiting female Tamahime-no-mikoto. While not a matriarchal society, women held high social status in the Yamato period and after marriage were usually not required to join their spouse's household. The young warrior Takeinadane probably visited his wife instead of living together. These visits are symbolized in the procession.

Each year, a new giant wooden phallus is carved from a large hinoki (cypress) tree. In Japan newly made objects are thought to express more purity and vitality. The tree is brought to the shrine for purification rituals during the coldest part of the winter, before a master craftsman begins to shape it. The craftsman uses only traditional tools and wears clothing that has also been purified through rituals at the shrine. It is this phallus that will be the central focus of the procession, and then be placed into the Shinmeisha shrine as the principal phallus after the festival.

Originally the phallus was much smaller and attached to a straw effigy of a samurai warrior, possibly representing Takeinadane. However in time this was considered a bit too risque even for a fertility ritual, so the effigy was discarded and the phallus was paraded by itself. As its size was still about 1 meter long, the phallus was paraded by itself, carried by 4 or 5 people. However, this practice was also altered with the partial shielding of the phallus by a small portable shrine (mikoshi), the same style that houses it today. As if to compensate for not being fully revealed, the size of the phallus has grown considerably over the years until it is now about 2.5 meters (13 feet) long and weighs 280 kilograms (620 pounds). It protudes from both ends of the portable shrine, and when considering the extra weight of the later, the bearers are basically struggling under a weight of 400 kilograms (885 pounds). Some 60 men in total (sometimes more) work in teams of 12 to deliver it to Tagata Shrine.

The organization and funding of the festival requires months of constant preparation and close coordination between shrine, village and regional authorities including the police. It is a major event. The procession begins at Kumano shrine about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) from Tagata Shrine. The parade is lead by a priest, who acting as a herald purifies the route by scattering salt on either side of the path the shrine will take on its journey. He is followed by standard bearers, the last of which carries a tall banner about 3 feet wide and seven feet high. This banner has a huge phallus painted on it that is sufficiently graphic that it could be used to teach anatomy.

This group is followed by local dignitaries (local government, club members, prominent businesses etc) who wear gold shawls. These shawls are similar to those usually worn by Buddhist priests, a legacy of the period when Shinto and Buddhism had a much closer relationship prior to the enforced separation of the two religions following the 1868 Meiji Restoration and collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Until the edict issued in the name of the Meiji Emperor, Buddhism and kami worship (Shinto) were practiced side-by-side with little or no conflict as the kami were considered another incarnation of Buddhist saints or deities - with Tagata Shrine actually being under the jurisdiction of a Buddhist temple called Kubodera. After a group of musicians playing ancient court music, the next group are young women in purple robes carrying wooden penises about 60cm (23 inches) long. The women are of various ages, but traditionally the unlucky age for women was 36, and so the women carrying the phalli did so because their vulnerability could then be offset by the protection of the large phallus itself. Carrying it is still considered an honor.

Next there is a group of Shinto priests, who accompany one of their members dressed as the deity Sarutahiko-no-okami, distinctive with red face, large protruding nose and a shock of hair. He fulfills the role of the deity who led the descent of Amaterasu from heaven to earth - the sun goddess and giver of all life. Sarutahiko-no-okami is followed closely by 2 men carrying a chest containing offerings of food (rice and fruit) as well as a phallus shaped stone(an example of one of the natural objects referred to above). Accompanying them and usually stirring up the crowd is the sake cart, with the volunteers attending to the cart dispensing sake in paper cups to anyone close enough to reach.

With the crowd excited, it is time for the main event, the arrival of the two portable shrines. First is the shrine carrying a wooden statue of Takeinadene-no-mikoto, the visiting husband of the agricultural deity. And finally it is time for the big penis, the huge hinoki-wood phallus. It is heavy, but at this stage is carried by 12 men who are all aged 42. For women the unlucky age was 36, for men 42.

Once the newly carved giant phallus arrives at the shrine it is enshrined in the Shinmei shrine for the next year. The old phallus is sold to local businesses or private homes. It is perhaps an unsettling thought that these phalli are all over the neighborhood. The new owner makes an altar where the phallus is installed and venerated with periodic rituals and offerings.

Visiting Tagata Shrine: Should you wish to pray, it is customary to begin by purifying your hands at the water basin in front of the shrine. Stand well away from the basin itself, first grasp the dipper in your right hand and pour water on your left. Then, reverse the procedure for your right hand. Finally take the dipper again in your right hand and pour a little in your cupped left hand and bring it to your mouth. Please do not drink directly from the dipper. Touch the water to your lips (or you may also rinse out your mouth) but don't swallow, since that would mean taking impurities into your body. Simply spit the water out on the stones at the foot of the water basin. At the main sanctuary, most people bow twice, clap their hands twice, then bow a final time. The coins offered are donations as well as symbols of people's petitions to the deity they now cast in her direction.

Getting there is fairly simple. The tickets are 710 yen each way. From Shin Nagoya station (next to JR Nagoya Station) catch the Meitetsu Inuyama line to Inuyama station. Inuyama is about 30 minutes from Nagoya and is a major station and the first with several platforms.

At Inuyama station change to the Komaki line (platform 3) and catch any train traveling back in the same direction you arrived, south. Get off at the third station, Tagata Jinja Mae, and you will have no problems finding the shrine. Walk to the west and turn to the left (south) down the main road or just follow the others.

The main parade usually starts at 2pm although there it is worth getting there a little bit early to look around first. There are plenty of yatai (small temporary foodstalls often seen at festivals) selling typical festival foods such as karaage (fried chicken pieces) and yakitori (grilled chicken on a stick), takoyaki (small prices of octopus grilled in batter), french fries and drinks. Perhaps you can pick up some interesting souvenirs such as some penis shaped candy to suck on while you make your way home?


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